Typography is the style and appearance of printed text. Typography is 95% of design and is a driving force in all forms of communication art. Magazines, websites and apps all consist of text, and is actually a major part. We never look into the typography or think about it as much because it is so common and we always expect to see it.
Typeface is a particular set of design. Each typeface has a specific weight, style, condensation, width, slant, italicisation, ornamentation, and designer or foundry. Here are some examples of some typefaces:
A font is a set of printable or displayable text character s in a specific style and size. The type design for a set of fonts is the typeface and variations of this design form the typeface family. For example, Helvetica is a typeface family, Helvetica italic is a typeface, and Helvetica italic 10-point is a font.
A serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol. A typeface with serifs is called a serif typeface. A typeface without serifs is called sans serif or sans-serif, from the French sans, meaning “without”.
Font size, style and colour is very important in typography. The use of large, capitalised text is important as the text could come across in a certain way, sometimes as if the text is being shouted. It all depends on how it is used and in what way. Same goes for style as different styles of writing create different effects. For example, fancy writing gives off a more elegant, formal effect. The colour is also important as sometimes, colours such as red and white make the text stand out in a dark background. All three of these thing must be taken into consideration when creating typography.
Letter-spacing, usually called tracking by typographers, refers to a consistent degree of increase (or sometimes decrease) of space between letters to affect density in a line or block of text.
As can be seen in the image above, the bottom word has more space between the letters, which to me, stands out more than the word above. There are 2 types of tracking: Loose tracking and tight tracking. The word at the top is an example of tight tracking, whereas the word at the bottom in an example of loose tracking.
There are 4 modes of alignment:
Centred: This is when text is symmetrically aligned along an axis in the middle of a column. This is often used for the title of a work, headlines, and for poems and songs. It can also be commonly found on signs, flyers, and similar documents where grabbing the attention of the reader is the main focus, or visual appearance is important.
Justified: This is where the spaces between words, and sometimes letters are stretched or compressed to align both the left and right ends of each line of text.
Flush Left: The text of a paragraph is aligned on the left-hand side with the right-hand side ragged. This is the default style of text alignment on webpages for left-to-right text.
Flush Right: This is used to set off special text in English, such as attributions to authors of quotes printed in books and magazines, or text associated with an image to its right. Flush right is often used when formatting tables of data.